Monday, April 16, 2018

Janus Fork Top Plate Machining

A short video showing the highlights of the machining process for the Janus Motorcycles fork top plate.

Monday, March 12, 2018

A Very Short Guide to Places to Not Miss in Rome

This short guide was originally written 01/05/2017 for friends planning a week long trip to Rome. 

Se non è vero, è ben trovato!

There is so much to see and do in Rome that it is with great difficulty and some remorse that I have compiled this small and abridged version of the city. I have excluded most of the palazzi, many of the museums, all but one or two of the restaurants, and of course countless churches and ancient buildings, temples, and monuments. To really experience and begin to comprehend and grow familiar with the city, at least 2-3 months is required, and that is not nearly enough. Nevertheless, those opportunities are rare and the brief span of one or two weeks is the usual allotment for the visitor to Rome. Therefore, I have divided this brief guide into sections that are in the same vicinity and that could be completed in a sequence. That sequence may, and probably should, take more than a single day. Some points I would recommend over others if you have a limited amount of time. Each little snippet about the site should be augmented with further reading. My recommendation is H. V. Morton’s "A Traveler In Rome” and James H. S. McGregor’s “Rome From the Ground Up”, to begin with. I have tried to balance the selection to represent the entire history of the city, however, there is certainly a heavy emphasis on churches which should not be surprising—this is Rome after all. I am also partial to the Renaissance and Baroque periods. 

Piazza Navona - This makes a great place to begin a tour of the city. It is the site of the ancient Stadium of Domitian where many christians were martyred. The current Renaissance buildings surrounding the piazza are constructed on the foundations of the stadium. It is a very theatrical space and has been the location of many processions, markets, celebrations, etc. for two millennia. Two things to make sure to see are the Fontana dei Quattro Fiume, or Fountain of the Four Rivers by Bernini. This is a masterpiece of sculpture and allegory. Legend has it that the hand of of the Nile river god is held up to shield his eyes from Borromini’s church of Sant’ Agnese in Agone in front of which the fountain stands. The church of Sant’ Agnese is built to honor Saint Agnes who was martyred in the Stadium of Domitian. The church is an incredible example of Borromini’s skill and mastery of surface and space. 
Santa Maria della Pace - This is one of my favorite churches and piazza’s ever. With a marvelous theatrical facade by Pietro da Cortona (primarily a painter), this church takes an irregular piazza and perfectly regularizes it through the use of the classical orders (and a lot of invention). The interior of the church and the cloister are also worth seeing.  
San Agostino - This church is an example of early Renaissance architecture designed by Giacomo di Pietrasanta and Baccio Pontelli in the late 15th century. The church is home to many great works of art including my favorite Caravaggio (The Madonna di Loreto, or Pilgrim’s Madonna) along with works by Raphael, Guercino, and both Sansovinos. Make sure to peak in the Biblioteca Angelica (one of the greatest libraries in the world) located right next door.     
The Pantheon - Go see it. It’s wonderful. Lots to read about it too. 
Santa Maria Sopra Minerva - This church has so much to see. It is built on the site of an ancient temple to the goddess Isis (reimagined as Minerva in the Renaissance). Highlights include marvelous frescoes by many of the most famous painters (Fillipino Lippi, Pirro Ligorio, Fra Angelico, etc.) Sculptors and architects of the interior include Giacomo della Porta, Carlo Maderno, etc. Michelangelo’s Christo della Minerva is on the left of the alter. It is also interesting to note that this is the only Gothic church in Rome to survive untouched as such (at least on the interior).
Bar Sant’ Eustachio - This is a great place to get espresso. They have a screen behind which they make their coffee because of the secret techniques. It’s very good. Also a great place to celebrate with a bottle of prosecco, although ask for the price first—I learned this the hard way! 
Sant’ Ignatio - This is one of the greatest baroque churches in Rome, with an incredible rationalized piazza in front that takes more queues from stage design than urbanism. It is the home of the Jesuits and is full of extravagant decoration and wealth. It is most notable for the frescoes of Andrea Pozzo depicting the life and work of Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits. The best part is the fake dome that Pozzo painted in perspective on the ceiling. The attached priory was home to the baroque polymath Athenasius Kircher who you have to read about to believe. He apparently used to make light shows and play aeolian harps out one of the windows of his laboratory to the dismay of passers by and his own order. 
San Andrea della Vale - The setting for the opening act of Puccini's Tosca. Designed by Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno, among others. 
Campo de’ Fiori - Magnificent piazza with a striking 19th century statue of Giordano Bruno who was burned on the spot for heresy. I think lots of people were actually burned here. There is a daily market here which is wonderful, but a bit pricey. Don’t go to the bars around here at night as they are all full of obnoxious American students. 
Palazzo Farnese - By far one of the most important Renaissance palaces in Rome, it belonged to the Farnese family. It was designed in turn by many of the greatest architects and sculptures of a very talented era: Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Michelangelo, Vignola, and Giacomo della Porta. The interior is lavish. The piazza in front of the palace is decorated with two massive granite basins from the Baths of Caracalla
Ponte Sisto - A beautiful 15th century bridge designed by Baccio Pontelli for Pope Sixtus IV. If you see lots of padlocks attached to the bridge it is because of a silly recent trend made popular in the 2000’s by a vapid young adult romance novel, “I Want You” by Federico Moccia. The fad is to attach "love locks" (padlocks symbolizing a couple’s love), which are in turn periodically cut off and thrown away by the city. The original location for this in the story is the Ponte Milvi, another ancient bridge located a mile upstream. 

Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere - A short walk over the Ponte Sisto will bring you to possibly my favorite place in all of Rome. I think it is a locus of the world as you will often randomly run into people you know here sitting on the steps of the fountain or in one of the surrounding cafes. This is a great neighborhood to return to in the evening for food and drinks. If you do, a great place to eat is “La Cisterna”, a very 1940ish restaurant owned by a wealthy winemaking family. Ask to see the well that is supposed to have provided Walt Disney with the model for the well in Snow White. If you ever have dinner here with a cardinal, the waiter might just give you a bottle or two of prosecco on the way out...
Santa Maria in Trastevere - One of the oldest Christian churches in Rome and according to legend, the first dedicated to Mary. Like many of the other early churches, it is built on the site of a Christian house-church dating to the 2nd or 3rd centuries. Notice the mismatched columns from the nearby Temple of Isis and the Baths of Caracalla. These rescued columns and capitals are called “spoglia”. According to legend, a fount of oil sprang up on the site 30 years before the birth of Christ. The mosaic on the front of the church depicts Mary suckling Christ with ten virgins with lamps of oil. 
Bar San Calisto - My favorite bar in Rome. Looks like nothing during the day, but gets rowdy and fills the whole piazza at night. Also 2 Euro big Peroni’s, although I enjoy sipping sambuca here. Very popular with locals. I am convinced that the narrator of Wilbur’s poem “Lying” is sitting here. I recommend it! 
San Pietro in Montorio - Located on the Janiculum Hill (not one of the proverbial Seven Hills of Rome) with one of the best views of the city. This is a Renaissance church built on the site of 9th century church dedicated to Saint Peter. Due to a misinterpretation, this was thought to be the site of Peter’s crucifixion. Currently, the site of his crucifixion is believed to be near the Vatican on the site of a Roman circus. One of the chapels has a fresco by Peruzzi and the school of Pinturicchio. In the courtyard is the marvelous and iconic Tempietto by Bramante. This is a masterpiece of classical architecture. There is plenty of literature to read about it.  
Fontana dell’ Acqua Paola - This was originally the termination of the Acquaduct of Trajan and served many mills located on the Janiculum. It has been decorated in the Renaissance and also offers a magnificent view of the city.  
Statue of Garibaldi - If you have time this is a fun place to go around 11:45 in the morning. Right below the statue if you look out toward the city is a cannon that is wheeled out every day and fired over the city at noon. Tutto Risurgimento!   
Suppli - Suppli is an iconic Roman street food. There is a little pizza/suppli place on the right side of the street-Via di San Francesco a Ripa, 137. This is the best suppli on earth. Stop on your way to Santa Cecilia and San Francesco
Santa Cecelia in Trastevere - This is an 8th century church heavily redecorated in the 18th century. It is built on the site of a 3rd century church that is built on the remains of a Roman house said to be that of Saint Cecelia. The most remarkable feature of this church is the 16th century sculpture of the martyred Saint Cecelia by Stefano Maderno. It is really worth seeing. There is plenty of literature about the martyrdom of Cecelia and the discovery of her incorrupt remains in the Renaissance.   
San Francesco a Ripa - Interesting church located across the Viale Trastevere. For a small fee you can see the cell/stone where Saint Francis slept when he visited Rome. Make sure to see the exquisite Statue of Blessed Ludovica Albertoni by Bernini
Tiber Island - Full of churches and a wonderful medieval hospital on the site of a temple to Asclepius, the island is shaped like a boat and even has a prow that you can view from the downstream end of the island. It is connected to either bank bike antique stone bridges. 
Ponte Quattro Capi - Originally the Pons Fabricius after it was commissioned by Lucius Fabricius the curator of the roads and bridges of Rome. Connecting the Isola Tibertina with the southeast edge of the Campus Martius (now the site of the Jewish Ghetto) this bridge is the oldest original Roman bridge still in use in Italy. It has been in continuous use for 2078 years. The bridge is named after the four-faced Janus hermes added to the bridge during the Renaissance.

Velabrum & Cloaca Maxima - In the early days of Rome, the seven hills of the city stood out more and the valleys had not yet been filled with refuse and built over. The Velabrum was a major valley running down from the Forum Romanum (the main forum) which is located between the Capitaline and Palatine hills, and at the feet of the Viminal, Quirinal, and Esquiline hills. At one time it was a marshy area at the foot of a stream, but by the time of the Etruscans, it had been channeled into an open sewer. It was gradually enclosed and covered over prior to the Republican period and further enlarged and developed over the next 700 years. It literally means “the greatest sewer” and was used to channel the runoff from streams and most of the major aqueducts, baths and fountains out into the Tiber. The arched outflow can be seen best from the side of the Ponte Palatino, a 19th century bridge. Guided tours of the Cloaca Maxima are available. 
Temple of Portunus - Also known as the Temple of Furtuna Virilis, this is one of the best preserved ancient Roman Temples. The temple was built on the site of an older temple in the first century BC. Not a whole lot is know about the deity to which it was dedicated. Due to its remarkably intact state, and ionic order, it has been often used as a model and heavily influenced the classical tradition in Italy, England, and even here in the United States.  
Temple of Hercules - Located in the Furom Boarium, or cattle market, this is an ancient Roman circular temple about which not a whole lot is known. It was converted to a church in the Renaissance. 
Santa Maria in Cosmedin - La Bocca della Verità is in the portico. This church is also located in the Forum Boarium and is built on the site of a Roman Deaconate or food distribution center. This tradition was carried on through the early church and Renaissance at the church of San Giorgio around the corner near the Arch of Janus! The portico of the church of San Giorgio was blown up in the 1990’s by the mafia as a revenge for Pope JPII’s participation in the more active campaign against them. Santa Maria in Cosmedine is traditionally associated with Greece as it and many of its surrounding buildings are Byzantine and the interior was decorated by many Greek artists fleeing the iconoclasm. It is called “cosmedin” from Greek kosmidion because of the beauty of its interior   
Santa Sabina all’ Aventino - Located at the top of the Aventine Hill, this another of my favorite churches in Rome. This is the first “station church” in the Roman tradition of celebrating mass at certain churches throughout the city during Lent. It is the oldest surviving Roman basilica with original rectangular colonnaded plan. Unfortunately, it has been heavily reworked to return it to its supposed pristine pre-baroque state. This process is called “repristinanzione” in Italian and is in my opinion a terrible sacrilege. Thankfully, it seems to have lost popularity since the 1920’s. The beautiful wooden doors of the basilica are original to the church and date to beginning of the 5th century! They are full of intricate carving. One panel is believed to be the oldest extant representation of the crucifixion. Definitely worth the visit. Behind the church is a wonderful garden of orange trees with a view of the the city and the Tiber Island below. This was the mother church of the Dominican Order prior to its move to Santa Maria Sopra Minerva. It is still a Dominican monastery and was once the home of Saint Dominic and Saint Thomas Aquinas who was abbot before he left for France! Apparently, his cell was directly above the door and he would keep strict tally of who entered and left the monastery, and when. 
San Alessio - This is another early basilica from the 3rd century that has had many renovations and additions over the years. Its current baroque exterior is pretty marvelous. The statue of Sant’Alessio under his Holy Steps is what sticks out most in my memory. Be sure to see the icon of the Madonna of Intercession.   
Piazza del Cavalieri di Malta - This is at the end of the street past Santa Sabina and Sant’ Alessio. It is the famous garden through the keyhole of which you can see the dome of Saint Peters perfectly framed. There is no public access to the actual garden. 
Sant Anselmo - This church is located at the very end of this same street. I remember it as a good example of a new church that fits well with its surroundings. I believe it is an active monastery and is the seat of the head of the Benedictine Order.

Campidoglio - There is so much going on here that I can hardly do it any justice. Definitely consult books and guides to make sure you are understanding the history and many sites, artifacts, and stories. A couple of things that I would draw attention to are the piazza itself at the top of the stairs. The piazza, complete with its wonderful geometric pavement and flanking porticoes, is the work of Michelangelo and is possibly one of the greatest works of Renaissance architecture and urbanism. It is here that he came up with the idea of a monolithic order housing a smaller order. The Capitoline Museum is fantastic and should not be missed. The original equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius stood here in the open air until the 1980’s when it was taken down for restoration and a replica put in its place. While Michelangelo disagreed with its central location in his newly design piazza, he did design the base on which it stands.  
Tarpeian Rock - At the back of the Capitol, is the Tarpeian Rock where, during the Republic, convicted traitors, etc., where thrown to their deaths. It was made especially famous in America by Nathaniel Hawthorn’s story, “The Marble Fawn”.  
Santa Maria in Aracoeli - Also of note would be Santa Maria in Aracoeli, a medieval church built on the site of a 5th century Byzantine abbey that is in turn said to be built on the site of the Arx, or original citadel of pre-Roman times. Legend has it that the sacred geese in the grounds of the Temple of Juno warned the inhabitants of the citadel of a night attack by the Gauls. The goddess was therefore given the title Juno Moneta (from Latin monere- to warn). This in turn gave its name to “money” which was presided over by the goddess Juno as the mother of the state. It is also said to be the site where the Tibertine Sybil prophesied the coming of Christ to Augustus. Both the sybil and Augustus figure prominently in the artwork of the church. It also houses the Santo Bambino, a small renaissance era wooden devotional image of the baby Jesus. This object has attracted fanatical attention over the last 300 years and was “crowned” by the pope in the late 19th century. In the 1990’s it was stolen and replaced with a copy. Definitely an entertaining and classically Roman story to research! Another infamous figure to read about is Cola di Rienzo who has a small statue near the spot where he was executed right off the stairs up to the church… 
Victor Emmanual Monument - Officially known as the Altare della Patria, it is more commonly known as “The Wedding Cake”, “The Typewriter”, or “English Soup”. An entire medieval neighborhood was demolished for its construction along with a part of the Capitoline hill. This monstrously incongruous building was built of non-native white stone at the turn of the last century. 
Forum Romanum - There is far too much going on here for me to describe it. Make sure to see the doors to the Roman Curia, the Umbilicus urbis Romae, the Umphalos, the Curia Julia (bronze doors are replacements after the original we transferred to the Lateran in the 17th century), and see if you can spot the ancient Roman wagon ruts in the original street paving. 
Via dei Fori Imperiali - This road was blasted through the remains of the Imperial Forums by Benito Mussolini to demonstrate his authority and provide a space to parade his troops. It is highly unfortunate. 
Palatine Hill - Beautiful place for a picnic. Also a great view of the forum and the back of the Campidoglio
Colosseum - Pretty cool. Never been inside, but I have seen “Return of the Dragon”... It was used as a stone quarry for other projects during the Renaissance! Plenty to read about it. 

San Gregorio Magna al Celio - Beautiful church run by the Benedictines. Saint Augustine of Canterbury was Abbot before he left on his mission to the Saxons. It has three oratories located in a garden by the side of the church. They are very rustic and peaceful. The Missionaries of Charity (Mother Theresa of Calcutta’s Order) have a small building to the side that they use to run a homeless shelter.  
Santi Giovanni e Paolo - This large early basilica is built on top an early Christian house church (recently uncovered). The interior was added to quite heavily in the late baroque and features very extravagant lamps. The Romanesque tower is very visible from the courtyard and features ceramic roundels of many colors. While the are often thin roundels of marble or porphyry (sometimes antique columns cut in section), I have heard that those on this tower are actually Islamic ceramic plates looted from the Holy Land.  
Santa Maria in Domenica - Directly in front of the church is an ancient Roman boat sculpture said to have been in the area since antiquity. The beautiful early Renaissance facade dates from the early 1500’s and is attributed to Andrea Sansovino, one of my favorite architects. This was the cardinal church of the Medici family for many years and bears much of their work. Note the square halo around Pope Paschal’s head in the apse mosaic—this signifies his saint-hood even though he was still alive at the time of its construction.  
Santo Sabastiano Rotundo - This is one of two circular churches in Rome. It was built in the 5th century to house the remains of Saint Stephen whose body had recently been recovered from the Holy Land. It’s walls depict many gruesome frescoes of martyrdom.
Basilica di San Giovanni in Latarano - This is the cathedral of Rome, and as such, contains the cathedra, seat of the Roman Pontifex Maximus, or Pope. It is an extremely important church and the culmination of the Via Sacra which begins at the Vatican. The Lataran Palace was gifted to the pope by Emperor Constantine and housed the popes for close to a thousand years before they moved to the Vatican. The church itself was redone by Borromini and is magnificent. It features sculptures of all the Apostles. The exterior was designed by the mathematician and architect Alessandro Galilei, a descendant of the famous Galileo Galilei.   
Santi Quattro Coronati - This is one of my absolute favorite churches in Rome. It is fully fortified from it’s medieval days outside the walls of Rome. It is one of the earliest churches in Rome and was once very important. It was burned during the Norman sack of Rome and rebuilt on a smaller scale. Over the years it gained its fortified walls and is now in a quiet part of the city off the beaten track. Make sure to pay a couple of Euros to see the beautiful little jewel-box Oratorio di San Sylvestro on the right as you enter the second courtyard. I have found this a great place to sketch. 
San Clemente - This is a must-see. The existing church is a Byzantine structure (with possibly the best mosaic apse in Rome depicting the tree of life) over early Christian church, over a Roman villa with a Temple of Mithras in the basement. It also has stream that flows into the forum. 

San Pietro in Vincoli - This is another great example of an early Christian church (mid-4th century) that has accumulate the trappings of every era right down the the 18th century ceiling. There are several works by Renaissance artists, the most famous being Michelangelo’s Moses (with “horns”). I believe the horns are a result of a Vulgate mistranslation that was supposed to refer to rays of light streaming from Moses’ head after he returns with the Ten Commandments. Either way, the monument is truly a masterpiece and definitely worth seeing. The monument is the Tomb of Pope Julius II, a Pope to whom Michelangelo (and all of us) owe a great debt. He commissioned both the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica, and Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel Ceiling among many other building and art projects. 
Domus Auria - Nero’s “golden house” was an extravagant private villa that gains its name from the extensive use of gold leaf, along with precious stones, ivory, and frescoes that covered the interior. It was built on land that Nero seized after the great fire of 64 AD and covered a larger section of land in the city. There is plenty of literature on the site and the huge effect its discovery during the Renaissance had on the artists of the time. The term “grotesque" originates from the frescoes discovered in the domus, because Renaissance artists were let down into the “grotto” on ropes to study and sketch the frescoes. Many famous signatures can be found scratched into the walls. 
Baths of Trajan - There is a nice little park for picnics located on the site of the baths which are a ruin. After Nero committed suicide, the following emperors built over his golden house with a variety of projects culminating in these baths built by the Emperor Trajan. Plenty to read on these.  
Santa Bibiana - If you have time, it’s worth hiking a bit further to this wonderful little Baroque church whose facade was designed by Bernini when he was 25. Although built on the site of previous earlier churches, it is remarkable manly for Bernini’s work, including his Statue of Santa Bibiana. There are also frescoes by Pietro da Cortona (architect of the facade Santa Maria della Pace) and Agostino Ciampelli
Santa Prassede - The mosaic program of this church is extensive and dates back to its first renovation in the 9th century by Pope Paschal (again represented with his square halo). The building, like many others was constructed on the site of a previous early Christian church. There is plenty of literature on the mosaic program. Don’t miss the Column of the Flagellation, the alleged pillar on which Christ was flogged before his crucifixion.  
Santa Maria Maggiore - Lots to see here. I can hardly do it justice, but will point to a couple of things not to miss. The mosaics are probably the best in Rome and I believe some of the earliest. Note the highly sophisticated “impressionistic” style of the mosaics during this late Antique period as opposed to the more crude representations during the time of Pope Paschal 400 years later. I believe that they include some of the earliest representations (5th century) of the Virgin Mary, represented as Theotokos (a term that would have been in use here in Rome at the time), following the Council of Ephasus.  
Santa Pudenziana - If you have time, this is another interesting site. Although rather out of the way now, this was a major church in the early days of the church and is said to be the oldest place of Christian worship in Rome. Built sometime in the 2nd century, it was the residence of the pope until Emperor Constantine bequeathed the Lataran Palace to the pope in its stead.  
Baths of Diocletian - Lots to read about these. Various parts of the bath have since been turned into churches and part of the Museum of Natural History  
Statione Termini - This is the main train station for Rome and is executed in a modernist style in concrete. In front of the station is a small portion of the Servian Wall. Richard Wilbur has a very good poem about the station called “For the New Railway Station in Rome”.   
Er Buchetto - I think this means “hole in the wall”, but I’m not sure-Via del Viminale 2 F. Either way it’s the best "panino con porchetta" sandwich in Rome, and has been since 1890… Porchetta is roast pig. Very affordable and best consumed with a white wine. 
Santa Maria della Vittoria - High Baroque church famous for it’s magnificent “Ecstasy of Saint Teresa” by Bernini.  
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane - This is one you shouldn't miss. It is also known as "San Carlino" because of its diminutive size, it was designed by Francesco Borromini (one of my favorite architects!) and is remarkable in this list for being original construction without an older church encased behind its facade. While this was one of Borromini’s first commissions, it was plagued with financial difficulties and may have lead to Borromini’s suicide 33 years later (the facade was not completed until after his death). It was an incredibly difficult site (the whole footprint of the church can fit within one of the piers of St. Peter’s Basilica), but Borromini was able to fit this incredible little church, complete with its remarkable dome and curving facade onto the site along with a tiny cloister with alternating upside-down and right-side-up balusters. 
Sant’ Andrea al Quirinale - The next church to visit is this wonderful counterpoint to Borromini’s San Carlino. Designed by Borromini’s more successful competitor Gian Lorenzo Bernini, it is also an elliptically shaped church and was completed around the same time. It is difficult to summarize the multiple allegorical, tropological, and literal levels of design that Bernini employed in the design of the church. I would highly recommend reading more on the incredible brilliance and depth of the design. Suffice it to say, the church was commissioned to house the Jesuit novices preparing to be sent forth as missionaries around the world (and probably martyred). Thus the bloody red-streaked marble interior…  
Palazzo del Quirinale - This is essentially the Italian White House, although it has also housed many popes and kings as well as presidents. Built on the Quirinal Hill, (the highest hill in Rome) it was in antique times very desirable and likely had many patrician villas built in the area. The palace is massive and includes many interior structures and gardens. There is usually some flashy Italian guard-changing, etc., which can be fun to watch. There is also a wonderful view of the city. Our apartment during one of our stays in Rome was not far from here and I walked through the piazza almost every day. The central balcony is the work of Bernini

Villa Borghese Museum - Do not miss visiting this museum containing some of the best art in the world. It is tricky to get tickets. I believe you must buy them several days or more in advance. I would strongly advise purchasing tickets before your leave for the trip. Not much I can add about the museum other than it is wonderful. 
Pincian Hill - Although not one of the Seven Hills of Rome, this area has been a garden retreat since antiquity with many ancient villas and gardens in the vicinity. These are also the gardens that were the haunts of the first English expatriates in the 18th and 19th centuries including Keats, Shelley, Byron, Lear, Eliot, Dickens, Browning, and Thackeray among many others. A great place for a picnic after the Villa Borghese.  
Santa Maria del Populo - This is another church not to miss on a tour of Rome. According to legend, there stood a tree on the spot that was a home to many crows that were thought to be the evil spirit of the Emperor Nero. Pope Paschal II had the tree cut down and a church built on its site. The current structure is another wonderful example of early Renaissance architecture designed by our friend Baccio Pontelli and Andrea Bregno in the late 15th century for Pope Sixtus IV. Bernini in turn redid the facade in the 17th century. The interior is absolutely full of some of the greatest works of art in the world. The apse was designed by Donato Bramante, Pinturicchio frescoed the vault, Andrea Sansovino designed two of the tombs, Francesco da Sangallo designed another tomb in an incredible chapel decorated with more frescoes by Pinturicchio, Carlo Fontana designed yet another chapel, Raphael himself designed the Chigi Chapel that was completed by Bernini, Caravaggio completed to paintings for the Cerasi Chapel (Crucifixion of Saint Peter and Saint Paul’s Conversion). The list goes on. Don’t miss this one. 
Ara Pacis - This is an interesting one. Housed within this monstrously incongruous glass box designed by the architect Richard Meier in 2006 is the 1st century BC altar dedicated to Pax, the goddess of Peace.  
Spanish Steps - Go sit on them. At the foot of the steps is the Roman fashion district. To the right of the steps is the Keats/Shelley Memorial House which is fun to visit if you have the time.   
Palazzo Barberini - A short hike past the Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini will take you from here to the Palazzo Barberini. This Baroque palace now houses the Museum of Ancient Art. Originally designed by Carlo Moderno, and completed by Bernini with Borromini playing second fiddle. It has many wonderful frescoes and the museum is worth a visit on its own merits. 

Ponte Sant’ Angelo - Take this to get to the Vatican.  
Via della Concilazione - The Via della Conciliazione stretches from the Castel Sant’ Angelo and the Ponte Sant’ Angelo to the Vatican. It is a new road that blasted through an entire medieval neighborhood and was supposed to symbolize the connection between the Vatican and the newly formed Italian State. Keep in mind that Bernini’s famous piazza would have been designed to be entered from a tiny winding medieval street, not this grand boulevard.  
Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano - Plenty to read about this prior to your visit.
Vatican Museum - Same here. Make sure you research your visit and know when and where to get tickets and line up for entry.  
Villa Farnesina - Beautiful Renaissance palace on the banks of the Tiber with extraordinary frescoes, etc. 
Porta Portese Market - Open on Sunday morning and crazy… Watch your purse or wallet—it will either be spent by you on some of the incredible stuff they sell, or stolen by a gypsy. One of and Amy and my favorite places to go in Rome. 
Catacombs of San Callisto - Probably one of the best catacombs to visit, these are located along the Appian Way which is nice to see in its own right. They date from the 2nd century with many famous Christian tombs including many popes. It is necessary to take a bus to reach these catacombs. 
Bar Giulia - Located on the side of the Via Giulia (a very important papal urban intervention) this cafe is rumored to have the best cappuccino in Rome. If I’m remembering properly, I this rumor is correct. 
Tivoli - If you are looking for a short trip outside the city, Tivoli can be visited by a short bus ride from the city. This was an ancient resort town located about 20 miles east of Rome at an ancient locus of trade and transportation where the River Aniene issues from the Sabine Hills. Many famous Romans and emperors had villas in or around Tivoli. Originally, the river wrapped around the raised acropolis of the town with its Roman temples and plunged over 4 sets of cataracts in its descent to the Roman campagna. This drop of the river created a deep gorge and was used to power mills and canals through the town from an early date. After numerous floods, the river was redirected away from the town and the gorge in the early 19th century. Make sure to visit Hadrian’s Villa located on the way up to the town, as well as the the marvelous Renaissance Villa d’Este and its gardens, powered by canals from the Aniene. The Villa Gregoriana was built as a part of the redirection of the river and is located a short walk from the Villa d’Este in the gorge through which the Aniene River once ran. I highly recommend a visit to this wonderful site. This was a required stop on the English “Grand Tour” and many romantic artists have depicted it, the temple of “Vesta”, and the falls of the river. 
Subiaco - A slightly longer trip, this town is located further up the Aniene River and is notable for its monastery, founded by St. Benedict and is the location where he wrote his famous “Rule". The town itself was built around another of Nero's extravagant Villa’s. The current town is a wonderful example of a medieval hill town. The Ponte San Francesco located at the crossing of the river is a beautiful fortified medieval bridge. The monastery itself can be reached by foot and is built against the side of a rocky cliff. It features many works of art and magnificent views. 
Cerveteri - This is a town not far from Rome and the location of an ancient Etruscan settlement dating back at least to the 9th century BC. Much of our knowledge of the Etruscan civilization in based on the preserved tombs of the extensive necropoli outside the town. These are very interesting to visit. There is a run-down place to eat local fare and drink the local new (an untransportable) white wine built into the historic caves of the city.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Winter KLR 650 Maintenance & Upgrades

It's the dead of winter here in northern Indiana and I have a couple of task that needing attending to on the old KLR as well as a few upgrades that I have been collecting parts for over the past few months. If you get a part here and a part there and can manage to be patient, winter updates and repairs don't have to be that painful. Of course right when I start all this it's going to break into a beautiful winter thaw, but this really shouldn't take all that long anyway. 

First up, the speedometer went out on me last spring in the thick of some off-trail brush up on the MCCCT and I have been meaning to get that repaired all summer (I guess there are a few more miles on the bike than the odometer claims...). Next, the steering has been feeling a little funny since I got the bike and I have often wondered if the steering head bearings aren't going out. More on that later. Lastly for the maintenance and repairs, I noticed the last time I put tires on the bike (Kenda 244's, which I have been very happy with) I noticed that the brake pads were getting a bit low. I will go ahead and replace those.

Apart from these repairs and maintenance issues, I have a couple of upgrades I want to make to the bike. First up, the suspension: stock KLR suspension is very, very basic. I won't say it's not usable, because I and plenty of other riders all over the world have ridden with it for years, sometimes in incredible terrain. I will also acknowledge that KLR suspension probably wasn't designed for a 6'-6" 250lb rider carrying gear. However, during the last year's and this spring's trips up to the MCCCT and doing a bit more off-road riding, the suspension really demonstrated its failings. Whooped out sections of the trail required slowing waaay down and still bottoming out at the bottom with a wild swaying and bucking gate that instantly let me know that the whole bike was laboring on each and every up and down. This in turn meant that the tires where either not getting enough traction, or biting deep into the sand only when the bike was completely bottomed out and off balance. The rear suspension was much the same on the trail, but showed its unsuitedness to my weight and riding style more around town. I'm a big rider and when my wife's weight was added to mine it made the bike squat way down and handle terribly even with the preload all the way up. I should also mention that the front suspensions light spring rate is a detriment on the road and around town since it wants to dive excessively under braking loads. 

These are all common KLR owner complaints and luckily for me they have been solved with a multitude of upgrades options for the suspension (as with just about everything else with the KLR). While I do ride off-road and will doubtless appreciate a better suspension set-up, I am not an off-road racer or anything of the sort. I just want to make the suspension a bit stiffer, quicker, and allow for my weight. In the spirit of KLRing, I'm also not interested in spending a fortune on state-of-the-art equipment. If I was, I wouldn't have a KLR. So, that means I'm not opting for aftermarket shock absorbers or forks. Rather, I am going to take mine apart and rebuild them with a selection of the many upgrade parts that are available for the KLR owner. First off, I want those forks to behave a bit better. The tried-and-true upgrade here is the Progressive (yep, it's right in the name) fork spring conversion. You take out the stock springs and spacers, replace them with the progressive units, maybe up your oil weight a bit, and blammo, you've got far, far better front suspension than the stock KLR. Notice I didn't say great or competitive, because it's not. It's still an ancient, out-of-date, damper tube suspension system, but it will have plenty more preload with the new spacers, and most importantly, a progressive spring rate. I'll see how I like it and maybe down the road I'll get emulators or intiminators to give even better compression and rebound damping, but for now I'm just looking forward to the better preload, stiffer, faster ride, and the lack of wallowing dive. Oh, I think I'm also going to push those fork tubes back down to the stock position and gain myself another 1" of ride height, as one of the previous owners had lowered the front end (I have heard the lowered front end can result in better handling so I will try this with caution). 

At the back I am replacing the stock monoshock spring with a new unit from Top Gun that is rated for up to 300lbs. I'm not all that heavy, but I do often ride with gear and love to zip downtown with my wife, so I decided to go for the heavier spring. We'll see how that goes. While I have the shock out, I plan to rebuild the shock, replacing the damper head with a new aftermarket part and changing the oil. It is possible to rebuild the stock head, but it requires bending out some seal retainers and looks like it will cost around the same for the replacement seals as a new head so I opted for the later.

The next upgrade is the front brake. The brakes on the KLR are nothing to write home about. I have been in several experiences with both deer and cars where my braking was not the thing that prevented me going down. They stop the bike, but with the mushy front end they don't do it very fast. So, I decided to invest in a new 270mm wavy front rotor. I am going to continue to use the stock caliper and simply upgrade the brake pads (they're wearing out and I'll need a new even surface to mate up with the brand new rotor. To make all this work, I got a billet aluminum brake caliper extender arm which should make the install of this upgrade fairly easy. We'll see how it goes and if I'm still not happy, maybe will upgrade to a double piston caliper at some point.  

Lastly, the steering head bearings. I'm kind of dreading this one as it requires quite a bit of disassembly, but really I'm sure that won't take long. I have removed quite a few bearing races from steering heads, and that can be quite frustrating though. I've got the new bearings in and I'll see if I can't isolate that headset shake I think I've been feeling and maybe fix it just by tightening top the adjuster nuts... (although given the age of the bike I'd say it's more likely that that isn't going to solve the problem). Either way, I'll solve that when I get to it.

And without further ado, here is the basic process of making these upgrades and performing the maintenance in as simple a manner as I can devise. I often under-plan these things so I thought it would be better to write it out first and see if I could figure out where I would get stuck before I got there... If it all works out as I plan, I hope to post some pictures of the process soon. Barely any of these upgrades will be the kind you can see and show off, rather they will be the kind that you are thankful for and can gloat over while you are enjoying the ride.

Front Suspension Upgrade
  1. Jack up front of bike
  2. Remove front wheel
  3. Remove brake caliper 
  4. Clean brake caliper and install new brake pads
  5. Remove brake rotor from wheel
  6. Install new brake rotor on wheel
  7. Test forks for steering head bearing failure (see #11)
  8. Loosen fork caps
  9. Loosen fork triple tree clamps
  10. Remove fork legs
  11. If replacing steering head bearings, now’s the time...
  12. Remove fork caps
  13. Remove stock spacers, washers, and springs
  14. Drain oil
  15. Flush with new fork oil
  16. Reinstall fork legs (flush with top plate)
  17. Add 15W fork oil w/fork legs compressed
  18. Pump up and down several times
  19. Install new fork springs, washers, and PVC spacers (cut to length)
  20. Replace fork caps (torque as per manual)
  21. Install new brake caliper extender
  22. Reinstall brake caliper on new extender
  23. Reinstall wheel
  24. Install new speedometer drive
  25. Let front of bike down and test new suspension

Rear Suspension Upgrade
  1. Jack up rear of bike
  2. Remove rear shock
  3. Thoroughly clean shock
  4. Remove stock shock spring
  5. Open up shock and remove stock plunger head
  6. Replace with aftermarket head 
  7. Refill with 15W shock oil
  8. Put shock back together
  9. Install new shock spring
  10. Refill shock with nitrogen
  11. Reinstall shock
  12. Replace rear brake pads
  13. Replace rear wheel
  14. Test it all out...

Steering Head Bearings

  1. Remove front fairing
  2. Remove wiring from speedometer cluster marking carefully
  3. Remove speedometer cluster
  4. Remove handlebars and set back on tank
  5. Remove top plate nut
  6. Remove top plate
  7. Loosen and remove adjuster nuts 
  8. Remove steering stem from steering head and set aside
  9. Tap out headset bearing races (prepare to exert high levels of patience)
  10. Clip off lower bearing cage and attempt to tap off lower bearing inner race
  11. If this doesn’t work, cut it off with a dremel very carefully
  12. Pack new bearings with grease
  13. Cut an opening in the side of the old bearing races
  14. Tap in the new bearing races to the headset with the old bearing races turned upside down
  15. Install lower bearing inner race on steering stem
  16. Reinstall steering stem in headset
  17. Tighten adjuster nuts
  18. Reinstall top plate
  19. Reinstall top plate nut and torque down
  20. Test fork bearing tension and adjust accordingly
  21. Reinstall handlebars
  22. Reinstall speedometer cluster
  23. Reconnect wiring according to marks
  24. Replace front fairing

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Janus Design Updates

Here are two recent video updates showing the typical design process for developing a new Janus part. In this case, the part is an upgrade for our most recent model, the Griffin 250, a dual-sport style motorcycle in the tradition of the early "scrambler" style motorcycle. Scramblers were the first motorcycles built specifically for riding off-road and were the forebearers of today's dedicated dirt bikes. This component protects the frame rails and engine cases from debris and obstacles with could dent or otherwise damage the motorcycle in off-road riding conditions.

Monday, December 11, 2017

Abstract for an Essay on Wilbur’s “Marginalia”

Grendel's mother drags Beowulf to the bottom of the lake by Henry Justice Ford 

All Thomas More College students studied the poetry of Richard Wilbur and were assigned a specific Wilbur poem during our semester in Rome. Richard Wilbur died this October at the ripe old age of 96. I was assigned Marginalia during my Rome semester in the spring of 2005. The below abstract is for an essay I am working on for an upcoming collection of papers on Wilbur that is being put together by alumni of the college as a tribute to “our” poet.
This essay will examine the idea of the marginal and of the border between perceived reality and the more complete reality that Wilbur points to beyond our perception. What collects at the margin of our experience is often broken, ugly, and dangerous. Yet, “our riches are centrifugal” and the tide of history continually pulls to this outer rim. While the undiscovered country cannot be visited, we are given a means of fathoming it through dreams, myth, and our collective experience. It will be the goal of this essay to describe how the poem provides a means of speaking about the marginal and of conceiving of it as not just a integral part of the human experience, but potentially the means for its completion.

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Most of The Time The Earth Is Flat.

by Jonathan Pageau in Orthodox Arts Journal July 16, 2014

"The scientific world machine is so pervasive, so iron cast that it retrofits itself to the entire history of human experience. We therefore encounter in most modern historical narratives the tales of “superstition”, of “if only they knew” culminating to that pernicious statement we have all heard: “people used to think this, but now we KNOW…”. 

Full essay here:

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

The Book of Tobit 

Prayer, fasting and almsgiving. Also a dog, sparrows, a large fish, a demon, and an archangel. 

Tobias with the Fish - Pieter Lastman 1613

I. The book of the words of Tobit, son of Tobiel, the son of Ananiel, the son of Aduel, the son of Gabael, of the seed of Asael, of the tribe of Nephthali; 2 Who in the time of Enemessar king of the Assyrians was led captive out of Thisbe, which is at the right hand of that city, which is called properly Nephthali in Galilee above Aser. 3 I Tobit have walked all the days of my life in the ways of truth and justice, and I did many almsdeeds to my brethren, and my nation, who came with me to Nineve, into the land of the Assyrians. 4 And when I was in mine own country, in the land of Israel being but young, all the tribe of Nephthali my father fell from the house of Jerusalem, which was chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, that all the tribes should sacrifice there, where the temple of the habitation of the most High was consecrated and built for all ages. 5 Now all the tribes which together revolted, and the house of my father Nephthali, sacrificed unto the heifer Baal. 6 But I alone went often to Jerusalem at the feasts, as it was ordained unto all the people of Israel by an everlasting decree, having the firstfruits and tenths of increase, with that which was first shorn; and them gave I at the altar to the priests the children of Aaron. 7 The first tenth part of all increase I gave to the sons of Aaron, who ministered at Jerusalem: another tenth part I sold away, and went, and spent it every year at Jerusalem: 8 And the third I gave unto them to whom it was meet, as Debora my father's mother had commanded me, because I was left an orphan by my father. 9 Furthermore, when I was come to the age of a man, I married Anna of mine own kindred, and of her I begat Tobias. 10 And when we were carried away captives to Nineve, all my brethren and those that were of my kindred did eat of the bread of the Gentiles. 11 But I kept myself from eating; 12 Because I remembered God with all my heart. 13 And the most High gave me grace and favour before Enemessar, so that I was his purveyor. 14 And I went into Media, and left in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias, at Rages a city of Media ten talents of silver. 15 Now when Enemessar was dead, Sennacherib his son reigned in his stead; whose estate was troubled, that I could not go into Media. 16 And in the time of Enemessar I gave many alms to my brethren, and gave my bread to the hungry, 17 And my clothes to the naked: and if I saw any of my nation dead, or cast about the walls of Nineve, I buried him. 18 And if the king Sennacherib had slain any, when he was come, and fled from Judea, I buried them privily; for in his wrath he killed many; but the bodies were not found, when they were sought for of the king. 19 And when one of the Ninevites went and complained of me to the king, that I buried them, and hid myself; understanding that I was sought for to be put to death, I withdrew myself for fear. 20 Then all my goods were forcibly taken away, neither was there any thing left me, beside my wife Anna and my son Tobias. 21 And there passed not five and fifty days, before two of his sons killed him, and they fled into the mountains of Ararath; and Sarchedonus his son reigned in his stead; who appointed over his father's accounts, and over all his affairs, Achiacharus my brother Anael's son. 22 And Achiacharus intreating for me, I returned to Nineve. Now Achiacharus was cupbearer, and keeper of the signet, and steward, and overseer of the accounts: and Sarchedonus appointed him next unto him: and he was my brother's son.

II. 1 Now when I was come home again, and my wife Anna was restored unto me, with my son Tobias, in the feast of Pentecost, which is the holy feast of the seven weeks, there was a good dinner prepared me, in the which I sat down to eat. 2 And when I saw abundance of meat, I said to my son, Go and bring what poor man soever thou shalt find out of our brethren, who is mindful of the Lord; and, lo, I tarry for thee. 3 But he came again, and said, Father, one of our nation is strangled, and is cast out in the marketplace. 4 Then before I had tasted of any meat, I started up, and took him up into a room until the going down of the sun. 5 Then I returned, and washed myself, and ate my meat in heaviness, 6 Remembering that prophecy of Amos, as he said, Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your mirth into lamentation. 7 Therefore I wept: and after the going down of the sun I went and made a grave, and buried him. 8 But my neighbours mocked me, and said, This man is not yet afraid to be put to death for this matter: who fled away; and yet, lo, he burieth the dead again. 9 The same night also I returned from the burial, and slept by the wall of my courtyard, being polluted and my face was uncovered: 10 And I knew not that there were sparrows in the wall, and mine eyes being open, the sparrows muted warm dung into mine eyes, and a whiteness came in mine eyes: and I went to the physicians, but they helped me not: moreover Achiacharus did nourish me, until I went into Elymais. 11 And my wife Anna did take women's works to do. 12 And when she had sent them home to the owners, they paid her wages, and gave her also besides a kid. 13 And when it was in my house, and began to cry, I said unto her, From whence is this kid? is it not stolen? render it to the owners; for it is not lawful to eat any thing that is stolen. 14 But she replied upon me, It was given for a gift more than the wages. Howbeit I did not believe her, but bade her render it to the owners: and I was abashed at her. But she replied upon me, Where are thine alms and thy righteous deeds? behold, thou and all thy works are known.

III. 1 Then I being grieved did weep, and in my sorrow prayed, saying, 2 O Lord, thou art just, and all thy works and all thy ways are mercy and truth, and thou judgest truly and justly for ever. 3 Remember me, and look on me, punish me not for my sins and ignorances, and the sins of my fathers, who have sinned before thee: 4 For they obeyed not thy commandments: wherefore thou hast delivered us for a spoil, and unto captivity, and unto death, and for a proverb of reproach to all the nations among whom we are dispersed. 5 And now thy judgments are many and true: deal with me according to my sins and my fathers': because we have not kept thy commandments, neither have walked in truth before thee. 6 Now therefore deal with me as seemeth best unto thee, and command my spirit to be taken from me, that I may be dissolved, and become earth: for it is profitable for me to die rather than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and have much sorrow: command therefore that I may now be delivered out of this distress, and go into the everlasting place: turn not thy face away from me. 7 It came to pass the same day, that in Ecbatane a city of Media Sara the daughter of Raguel was also reproached by her father's maids; 8 Because that she had been married to seven husbands, whom Asmodeus the evil spirit had killed, before they had lain with her. Dost thou not know, said they, that thou hast strangled thine husbands? thou hast had already seven husbands, neither wast thou named after any of them. 9 Wherefore dost thou beat us for them? if they be dead, go thy ways after them, let us never see of thee either son or daughter. 10 Whe she heard these things, she was very sorrowful, so that she thought to have strangled herself; and she said, I am the only daughter of my father, and if I do this, it shall be a reproach unto him, and I shall bring his old age with sorrow unto the grave. 11 Then she prayed toward the window, and said, Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and thine holy and glorious name is blessed and honourable for ever: let all thy works praise thee for ever. 12 And now, O Lord, I set I mine eyes and my face toward thee, 13 And say, Take me out of the earth, that I may hear no more the reproach. 14 Thou knowest, Lord, that I am pure from all sin with man, 15 And that I never polluted my name, nor the name of my father, in the land of my captivity: I am the only daughter of my father, neither hath he any child to be his heir, neither any near kinsman, nor any son of his alive, to whom I may keep myself for a wife: my seven husbands are already dead; and why should I live? but if it please not thee that I should die, command some regard to be had of me, and pity taken of me, that I hear no more reproach. 16 So the prayers of them both were heard before the majesty of the great God. 17 And Raphael was sent to heal them both, that is, to scale away the whiteness of Tobit's eyes, and to give Sara the daughter of Raguel for a wife to Tobias the son of Tobit; and to bind Asmodeus the evil spirit; because she belonged to Tobias by right of inheritance. The selfsame time came Tobit home, and entered into his house, and Sara the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper chamber.

IV. 1 In that day Tobit remembered the money which he had committed to Gabael in Rages of Media, 2 And said with himself, I have wished for death; wherefore do I not call for my son Tobias that I may signify to him of the money before I die? 3 And when he had called him, he said, My son, when I am dead, bury me; and despise not thy mother, but honour her all the days of thy life, and do that which shall please her, and grieve her not. 4 Remember, my son, that she saw many dangers for thee, when thou wast in her womb: and when she is dead, bury her by me in one grave. 5 My son, be mindful of the Lord our God all thy days, and let not thy will be set to sin, or to transgress his commandments: do uprightly all thy life long, and follow not the ways of unrighteousness. 6 For if thou deal truly, thy doings shall prosperously succeed to thee, and to all them that live justly. 7 Give alms of thy substance; and when thou givest alms, let not thine eye be envious, neither turn thy face from any poor, and the face of God shall not be turned away from thee. 8 If thou hast abundance give alms accordingly: if thou have but a little, be not afraid to give according to that little: 9 For thou layest up a good treasure for thyself against the day of necessity. 10 Because that alms do deliver from death, and suffereth not to come into darkness. 11 For alms is a good gift unto all that give it in the sight of the most High. 12 Beware of all whoredom, my son, and chiefly take a wife of the seed of thy fathers, and take not a strange woman to wife, which is not of thy father's tribe: for we are the children of the prophets, Noe, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: remember, my son, that our fathers from the beginning, even that they all married wives of their own kindred, and were blessed in their children, and their seed shall inherit the land. 13 Now therefore, my son, love thy brethren, and despise not in thy heart thy brethren, the sons and daughters of thy people, in not taking a wife of them: for in pride is destruction and much trouble, and in lewdness is decay and great want: for lewdness is the mother of famine. 14 Let not the wages of any man, which hath wrought for thee, tarry with thee, but give him it out of hand: for if thou serve God, he will also repay thee: be circumspect my son, in all things thou doest, and be wise in all thy conversation. 15 Do that to no man which thou hatest: drink not wine to make thee drunken: neither let drunkenness go with thee in thy journey. 16 Give of thy bread to the hungry, and of thy garments to them that are naked; and according to thine abundance give alms: and let not thine eye be envious, when thou givest alms. 17 Pour out thy bread on the burial of the just, but give nothing to the wicked. 18 Ask counsel of all that are wise, and despise not any counsel that is profitable. 19 Bless the Lord thy God always, and desire of him that thy ways may be directed, and that all thy paths and counsels may prosper: for every nation hath not counsel; but the Lord himself giveth all good things, and he humbleth whom he will, as he will; now therefore, my son, remember my commandments, neither let them be put out of thy mind. 20 And now I signify this to they that I committed ten talents to Gabael the son of Gabrias at Rages in Media. 21 And fear not, my son, that we are made poor: for thou hast much wealth, if thou fear God, and depart from all sin, and do that which is pleasing in his sight.

V. 1 Tobias then answered and said, Father, I will do all things which thou hast commanded me: 2 But how can I receive the money, seeing I know him not? 3 Then he gave him the handwriting, and said unto him, Seek thee a man which may go with thee, whiles I yet live, and I will give him wages: and go and receive the money. 4 Therefore when he went to seek a man, he found Raphael that was an angel. 5 But he knew not; and he said unto him, Canst thou go with me to Rages? and knowest thou those places well? 6 To whom the angel said, I will go with thee, and I know the way well: for I have lodged with our brother Gabael. 7 Then Tobias said unto him, Tarry for me, till I tell my father. 8 Then he said unto him, Go and tarry not. So he went in and said to his father, Behold, I have found one which will go with me. Then he said, Call him unto me, that I may know of what tribe he is, and whether he be a trusty man to go with thee. 9 So he called him, and he came in, and they saluted one another. 10 Then Tobit said unto him, Brother, shew me of what tribe and family thou art. 11 To whom he said, Dost thou seek for a tribe or family, or an hired man to go with thy son? Then Tobit said unto him, I would know, brother, thy kindred and name. 12 Then he said, I am Azarias, the son of Ananias the great, and of thy brethren. 13 Then Tobit said, Thou art welcome, brother; be not now angry with me, because I have enquired to know thy tribe and thy family; for thou art my brother, of an honest and good stock: for I know Ananias and Jonathas, sons of that great Samaias, as we went together to Jerusalem to worship, and offered the firstborn, and the tenths of the fruits; and they were not seduced with the error of our brethren: my brother, thou art of a good stock. 14 But tell me, what wages shall I give thee? wilt thou a drachm a day, and things necessary, as to mine own son? 15 Yea, moreover, if ye return safe, I will add something to thy wages. 16 So they were well pleased. Then said he to Tobias, Prepare thyself for the journey, and God send you a good journey. And when his son had prepared all things far the journey, his father said, Go thou with this man, and God, which dwelleth in heaven, prosper your journey, and the angel of God keep you company. So they went forth both, and the young man's dog with them. 17 But Anna his mother wept, and said to Tobit, Why hast thou sent away our son? is he not the staff of our hand, in going in and out before us? 18 Be not greedy to add money to money: but let it be as refuse in respect of our child. 19 For that which the Lord hath given us to live with doth suffice us. 20 Then said Tobit to her, Take no care, my sister; he shall return in safety, and thine eyes shall see him. 21 For the good angel will keep him company, and his journey shall be prosperous, and he shall return safe. 22 Then she made an end of weeping.

VI. 1 And as they went on their journey, they came in the evening to the river Tigris, and they lodged there. 2 And when the young man went down to wash himself, a fish leaped out of the river, and would have devoured him. 3 Then the angel said unto him, Take the fish. And the young man laid hold of the fish, and drew it to land. 4 To whom the angel said, Open the fish, and take the heart and the liver and the gall, and put them up safely. 5 So the young man did as the angel commanded him; and when they had roasted the fish, they did eat it: then they both went on their way, till they drew near to Ecbatane. 6 Then the young man said to the angel, Brother Azarias, to what use is the heart and the liver and the gal of the fish? 7 And he said unto him, Touching the heart and the liver, if a devil or an evil spirit trouble any, we must make a smoke thereof before the man or the woman, and the party shall be no more vexed. 8 As for the gall, it is good to anoint a man that hath whiteness in his eyes, and he shall be healed. 9 And when they were come near to Rages, 10 The angel said to the young man, Brother, to day we shall lodge with Raguel, who is thy cousin; he also hath one only daughter, named Sara; I will speak for her, that she may be given thee for a wife. 11 For to thee doth the right of her appertain, seeing thou only art of her kindred. 12 And the maid is fair and wise: now therefore hear me, and I will speak to her father; and when we return from Rages we will celebrate the marriage: for I know that Raguel cannot marry her to another according to the law of Moses, but he shall be guilty of death, because the right of inheritance doth rather appertain to thee than to any other. 13 Then the young man answered the angel, I have heard, brother Azarias that this maid hath been given to seven men, who all died in the marriage chamber. 14 And now I am the only son of my father, and I am afraid, lest if I go in unto her, I die, as the other before: for a wicked spirit loveth her, which hurteth no body, but those which come unto her; wherefore I also fear lest I die, and bring my father's and my mother's life because of me to the grave with sorrow: for they have no other son to bury them. 15 Then the angel said unto him, Dost thou not remember the precepts which thy father gave thee, that thou shouldest marry a wife of thine own kindred? wherefore hear me, O my brother; for she shall be given thee to wife; and make thou no reckoning of the evil spirit; for this same night shall she be given thee in marriage. 16 And when thou shalt come into the marriage chamber, thou shalt take the ashes of perfume, and shalt lay upon them some of the heart and liver of the fish, and shalt make a smoke with it: 17 And the devil shall smell it, and flee away, and never come again any more: but when thou shalt come to her, rise up both of you, and pray to God which is merciful, who will have pity on you, and save you: fear not, for she is appointed unto thee from the beginning; and thou shalt preserve her, and she shall go with thee. Moreover I suppose that she shall bear thee children. Now when Tobias had heard these things, he loved her, and his heart was effectually joined to her.

VII. 1 And when they were come to Ecbatane, they came to the house of Raguel, and Sara met them: and after they had saluted one another, she brought them into the house. 2 Then said Raguel to Edna his wife, How like is this young man to Tobit my cousin! 3 And Raguel asked them, From whence are ye, brethren? To whom they said, We are of the sons of Nephthalim, which are captives in Nineve. 4 Then he said to them, Do ye know Tobit our kinsman? And they said, We know him. Then said he, Is he in good health? 5 And they said, He is both alive, and in good health: and Tobias said, He is my father. 6 Then Raguel leaped up, and kissed him, and wept, 7 And blessed him, and said unto him, Thou art the son of an honest and good man. But when he had heard that Tobit was blind, he was sorrowful, and wept. 8 And likewise Edna his wife and Sara his daughter wept. Moreover they entertained them cheerfully; and after that they had killed a ram of the flock, they set store of meat on the table. Then said Tobias to Raphael, Brother Azarias, speak of those things of which thou didst talk in the way, and let this business be dispatched. 9 So he communicated the matter with Raguel: and Raguel said to Tobias, Eat and drink, and make merry: 10 For it is meet that thou shouldest marry my daughter: nevertheless I will declare unto thee the truth. 11 I have given my daughter in marriage to seven men, who died that night they came in unto her: nevertheless for the present be merry. But Tobias said, I will eat nothing here, till we agree and swear one to another. 12 Raguel said, Then take her from henceforth according to the manner, for thou art her cousin, and she is thine, and the merciful God give you good success in all things. 13 Then he called his daughter Sara, and she came to her father, and he took her by the hand, and gave her to be wife to Tobias, saying, Behold, take her after the law of Moses, and lead her away to thy father. And he blessed them; 14 And called Edna his wife, and took paper, and did write an instrument of covenants, and sealed it. 15 Then they began to eat. 16 After Raguel called his wife Edna, and said unto her, Sister, prepare another chamber, and bring her in thither. 17 Which when she had done as he had bidden her, she brought her thither: and she wept, and she received the tears of her daughter, and said unto her, 18 Be of good comfort, my daughter; the Lord of heaven and earth give thee joy for this thy sorrow: be of good comfort, my daughter.

VIII. 1 And when they had supped, they brought Tobias in unto her. 2 And as he went, he remembered the words of Raphael, and took the ashes of the perfumes, and put the heart and the liver of the fish thereupon, and made a smoke therewith. 3 The which smell when the evil spirit had smelled, he fled into the utmost parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him. 4 And after that they were both shut in together, Tobias rose out of the bed, and said, Sister, arise, and let us pray that God would have pity on us. 5 Then began Tobias to say, Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers, and blessed is thy holy and glorious name for ever; let the heavens bless thee, and all thy creatures. 6 Thou madest Adam, and gavest him Eve his wife for an helper and stay: of them came mankind: thou hast said, It is not good that man should be alone; let us make unto him an aid like unto himself. 7 And now, O Lord, I take not this my sister for lush but uprightly: therefore mercifully ordain that we may become aged together. 8 And she said with him, Amen. 9 So they slept both that night. And Raguel arose, and went and made a grave, 10 Saying, I fear lest he also be dead. 11 But when Raguel was come into his house, 12 He said unto his wife Edna. Send one of the maids, and let her see whether he be alive: if he be not, that we may bury him, and no man know it. 13 So the maid opened the door, and went in, and found them both asleep, 14 And came forth, and told them that he was alive. 15 Then Raguel praised God, and said, O God, thou art worthy to be praised with all pure and holy praise; therefore let thy saints praise thee with all thy creatures; and let all thine angels and thine elect praise thee for ever. 16 Thou art to be praised, for thou hast made me joyful; and that is not come to me which I suspected; but thou hast dealt with us according to thy great mercy. 17 Thou art to be praised because thou hast had mercy of two that were the only begotten children of their fathers: grant them mercy, O Lord, and finish their life in health with joy and mercy. 18 Then Raguel bade his servants to fill the grave. 19 And he kept the wedding feast fourteen days. 20 For before the days of the marriage were finished, Raguel had said unto him by an oath, that he should not depart till the fourteen days of the marriage were expired; 21 And then he should take the half of his goods, and go in safety to his father; and should have the rest when I and my wife be dead.

IX. 1 Then Tobias called Raphael, and said unto him, 2 Brother Azarias, take with thee a servant, and two camels, and go to Rages of Media to Gabael, and bring me the money, and bring him to the wedding. 3 For Raguel hath sworn that I shall not depart. 4 But my father counteth the days; and if I tarry long, he will be very sorry. 5 So Raphael went out, and lodged with Gabael, and gave him the handwriting: who brought forth bags which were sealed up, and gave them to him. 6 And early in the morning they went forth both together, and came to the wedding: and Tobias blessed his wife.

X. 1 Now Tobit his father counted every day: and when the days of the journey were expired, and they came not, 2 Then Tobit said, Are they detained? or is Gabael dead, and there is no man to give him the money? 3 Therefore he was very sorry. 4 Then his wife said unto him, My son is dead, seeing he stayeth long; and she began to wail him, and said, 5 Now I care for nothing, my son, since I have let thee go, the light of mine eyes. 6 To whom Tobit said, Hold thy peace, take no care, for he is safe. 7 But she said, Hold thy peace, and deceive me not; my son is dead. And she went out every day into the way which they went, and did eat no meat on the daytime, and ceased not whole nights to bewail her son Tobias, until the fourteen days of the wedding were expired, which Raguel had sworn that he should spend there. Then Tobias said to Raguel, Let me go, for my father and my mother look no more to see me. 8 But his father in law said unto him, Tarry with me, and I will send to thy father, and they shall declare unto him how things go with thee. 9 But Tobias said, No; but let me go to my father. 10 Then Raguel arose, and gave him Sara his wife, and half his goods, servants, and cattle, and money: 11 And he blessed them, and sent them away, saying, The God of heaven give you a prosperous journey, my children. 12 And he said to his daughter, Honour thy father and thy mother in law, which are now thy parents, that I may hear good report of thee. And he kissed her. Edna also said to Tobias, The Lord of heaven restore thee, my dear brother, and grant that I may see thy children of my daughter Sara before I die, that I may rejoice before the Lord: behold, I commit my daughter unto thee of special trust; where are do not entreat her evil.

XI. 1 After these things Tobias went his way, praising God that he had given him a prosperous journey, and blessed Raguel and Edna his wife, and went on his way till they drew near unto Nineve. 2 Then Raphael said to Tobias, Thou knowest, brother, how thou didst leave thy father: 3 Let us haste before thy wife, and prepare the house. 4 And take in thine hand the gall of the fish. So they went their way, and the dog went after them. 5 Now Anna sat looking about toward the way for her son. 6 And when she espied him coming, she said to his father, Behold, thy son cometh, and the man that went with him. 7 Then said Raphael, I know, Tobias, that thy father will open his eyes. 8 Therefore anoint thou his eyes with the gall, and being pricked therewith, he shall rub, and the whiteness shall fall away, and he shall see thee. 9 Then Anna ran forth, and fell upon the neck of her son, and said unto him, Seeing I have seen thee, my son, from henceforth I am content to die. And they wept both. 10 Tobit also went forth toward the door, and stumbled: but his son ran unto him, 11 And took hold of his father: and he strake of the gall on his fathers' eyes, saying, Be of good hope, my father. 12 And when his eyes began to smart, he rubbed them; 13 And the whiteness pilled away from the corners of his eyes: and when he saw his son, he fell upon his neck. 14 And he wept, and said, Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever; and blessed are all thine holy angels: 15 For thou hast scourged, and hast taken pity on me: for, behold, I see my son Tobias. And his son went in rejoicing, and told his father the great things that had happened to him in Media. 16 Then Tobit went out to meet his daughter in law at the gate of Nineve, rejoicing and praising God: and they which saw him go marvelled, because he had received his sight. 17 But Tobias gave thanks before them, because God had mercy on him. And when he came near to Sara his daughter in law, he blessed her, saying, Thou art welcome, daughter: God be blessed, which hath brought thee unto us, and blessed be thy father and thy mother. And there was joy among all his brethren which were at Nineve. 18 And Achiacharus, and Nasbas his brother's son, came: 19 And Tobias' wedding was kept seven days with great joy.

XII. 1 Then Tobit called his son Tobias, and said unto him, My son, see that the man have his wages, which went with thee, and thou must give him more. 2 And Tobias said unto him, O father, it is no harm to me to give him half of those things which I have brought: 3 For he hath brought me again to thee in safety, and made whole my wife, and brought me the money, and likewise healed thee. 4 Then the old man said, It is due unto him. 5 So he called the angel, and he said unto him, Take half of all that ye have brought and go away in safety. 6 Then he took them both apart, and said unto them, Bless God, praise him, and magnify him, and praise him for the things which he hath done unto you in the sight of all that live. It is good to praise God, and exalt his name, and honourably to shew forth the works of God; therefore be not slack to praise him. 7 It is good to keep close the secret of a king, but it is honourable to reveal the works of God. Do that which is good, and no evil shall touch you. 8 Prayer is good with fasting and alms and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with unrighteousness. It is better to give alms than to lay up gold: 9 For alms doth deliver from death, and shall purge away all sin. Those that exercise alms and righteousness shall be filled with life: 10 But they that sin are enemies to their own life. 11 Surely I will keep close nothing from you. For I said, It was good to keep close the secret of a king, but that it was honourable to reveal the works of God. 12 Now therefore, when thou didst pray, and Sara thy daughter in law, I did bring the remembrance of your prayers before the Holy One: and when thou didst bury the dead, I was with thee likewise. 13 And when thou didst not delay to rise up, and leave thy dinner, to go and cover the dead, thy good deed was not hid from me: but I was with thee. 14 And now God hath sent me to heal thee and Sara thy daughter in law. 15 I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels, which present the prayers of the saints, and which go in and out before the glory of the Holy One. 16 Then they were both troubled, and fell upon their faces: for they feared. 17 But he said unto them, Fear not, for it shall go well with you; praise God therefore. 18 For not of any favour of mine, but by the will of our God I came; wherefore praise him for ever. 19 All these days I did appear unto you; but I did neither eat nor drink, but ye did see a vision. 20 Now therefore give God thanks: for I go up to him that sent me; but write all things which are done in a book. 21 And when they arose, they saw him no more. 22 Then they confessed the great and wonderful works of God, and how the angel of the Lord had appeared unto them.

XIII. 1 Then Tobit wrote a prayer of rejoicing, and said, Blessed be God that liveth for ever, and blessed be his kingdom. 2 For he doth scourge, and hath mercy: he leadeth down to hell, and bringeth up again: neither is there any that can avoid his hand. 3 Confess him before the Gentiles, ye children of Israel: for he hath scattered us among them. 4 There declare his greatness, and extol him before all the living: for he is our Lord, and he is the God our Father for ever. 5 And he will scourge us for our iniquities, and will have mercy again, and will gather us out of all nations, among whom he hath scattered us. 6 If ye turn to him with your whole heart, and with your whole mind, and deal uprightly before him, then will he turn unto you, and will not hide his face from you. Therefore see what he will do with you, and confess him with your whole mouth, and praise the Lord of might, and extol the everlasting King. In the land of my captivity do I praise him, and declare his might and majesty to a sinful nation. O ye sinners, turn and do justice before him: who can tell if he will accept you, and have mercy on you? 7 I will extol my God, and my soul shall praise the King of heaven, and shall rejoice in his greatness. 8 Let all men speak, and let all praise him for his righteousness. 9 O Jerusalem, the holy city, he will scourge thee for thy children's works, and will have mercy again on the sons of the righteous. 10 Give praise to the Lord, for he is good: and praise the everlasting King, that his tabernacle may be builded in thee again with joy, and let him make joyful there in thee those that are captives, and love in thee for ever those that are miserable. 11 Many nations shall come from far to the name of the Lord God with gifts in their hands, even gifts to the King of heaven; all generations shall praise thee with great joy. 12 Cursed are all they which hate thee, and blessed shall all be which love thee for ever. 13 Rejoice and be glad for the children of the just: for they shall be gathered together, and shall bless the Lord of the just. 14 O blessed are they which love thee, for they shall rejoice in thy peace: blessed are they which have been sorrowful for all thy scourges; for they shall rejoice for thee, when they have seen all thy glory, and shall be glad for ever. 15 Let my soul bless God the great King. 16 For Jerusalem shall be built up with sapphires and emeralds, and precious stone: thy walls and towers and battlements with pure gold. 17 And the streets of Jerusalem shall be paved with beryl and carbuncle and stones of Ophir. 18 And all her streets shall say, Alleluia; and they shall praise him, saying, Blessed be God, which hath extolled it for ever.

XIV. 1 So Tobit made an end of praising God. 2 And he was eight and fifty years old when he lost his sight, which was restored to him after eight years: and he gave alms, and he increased in the fear of the Lord God, and praised him. 3 And when he was very aged he called his son, and the sons of his son, and said to him, My son, take thy children; for, behold, I am aged, and am ready to depart out of this life. 4 Go into Media my son, for I surely believe those things which Jonas the prophet spake of Nineve, that it shall be overthrown; and that for a time peace shall rather be in Media; and that our brethren shall lie scattered in the earth from that good land: and Jerusalem shall be desolate, and the house of God in it shall be burned, and shall be desolate for a time; 5 And that again God will have mercy on them, and bring them again into the land, where they shall build a temple, but not like to the first, until the time of that age be fulfilled; and afterward they shall return from all places of their captivity, and build up Jerusalem gloriously, and the house of God shall be built in it for ever with a glorious building, as the prophets have spoken thereof. 6 And all nations shall turn, and fear the Lord God truly, and shall bury their idols. 7 So shall all nations praise the Lord, and his people shall confess God, and the Lord shall exalt his people; and all those which love the Lord God in truth and justice shall rejoice, shewing mercy to our brethren. 8 And now, my son, depart out of Nineve, because that those things which the prophet Jonas spake shall surely come to pass. 9 But keep thou the law and the commandments, and shew thyself merciful and just, that it may go well with thee. 10 And bury me decently, and thy mother with me; but tarry no longer at Nineve. Remember, my son, how Aman handled Achiacharus that brought him up, how out of light he brought him into darkness, and how he rewarded him again: yet Achiacharus was saved, but the other had his reward: for he went down into darkness. Manasses gave alms, and escaped the snares of death which they had set for him: but Aman fell into the snare, and perished. 11 Wherefore now, my son, consider what alms doeth, and how righteousness doth deliver. When he had said these things, he gave up the ghost in the bed, being an hundred and eight and fifty years old; and he buried him honourably. 12 And when Anna his mother was dead, he buried her with his father. But Tobias departed with his wife and children to Ecbatane to Raguel his father in law, 13 Where he became old with honour, and he buried his father and mother in law honourably, and he inherited their substance, and his father Tobit's. 14 And he died at Ecbatane in Media, being an hundred and seven and twenty years old. 15 But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineve, which was taken by Nabuchodonosor and Assuerus: and before his death he rejoiced over Nineve.